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Use the Statute of Limitations listed below determine your state's debt collection time limits.
Written contracts: 6 years, runs from date creditor could have sued account.
Oral debts, stated or opens accounts: 3 years.
Actions for fraud or mistake: 3 years from the date of the discovery of the fraud or mistake.
Actions involving fiduciary bonds, out of state instruments and foreign judgments: 4 years. NOTE: Arizona applies its own statute of limitations to foreign judgments rather than that of the state that originally rendered the judgment whether the judgment is being domesticated under the Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act or pursuant to a separate action on the foreign judgment.
An Arizona judgment must be renewed within five years of the date of the judgment.
Domestic and foreign judgments: 6 years and renewable each six years. Note: If for child support, maintenance or arrears the judgment (lien) stays in effect for the life the judgment without the necessity of renewal every six years.
All contract actions, including personal contracts and actions under the UCC: 3 years (C.R.S. 13-80-101), except as otherwise provided in 13-80-103.5; All claims under the Uniform Consumer Credit Code, except sections 5-5-201(5); All actions to recover, detain or convert goods or chattels, except as otherwise provided in section 13 -80-103.5.
Liquidated debt and unliquidated determinable amount of money due; Enforcement of instrument securing the payment of or evidencing any debt; Action to recover the possession of secured personal property; Arrears of rent: 6 years, (C.R.S. 13-80-103.5)
Contract or written instrument and for mortgage foreclosure: 5 years. F.S. 95.11.
Libel, slander, or unpaid wages: 2 years.
Judgments: 20 years total and to be a lien on any real property, it has to be re-recorded for a second time at 10 years.
The limitations period begins from the date the last element of the cause of action occurred, (95.051). NOTE: The limitation period is tolled (stopped) for any period during which the debtor is absent from the state and each time a voluntary payment is made on a debt arising from a written instrument.
Almost all other actions fall under the 4-year catch-all limitations period, (F.S. 95.11(3)(p)).
Breach of any contract for sale: 4 years, (OCGA 11-2- 725) NOTE: Parties may reduce limitation to not less than one year, but not extend it. A cause of action accrues when the breach occurs, regardless of the aggrieved party's lack of knowledge of the breach.
Contract, including breach of warranty or indemnity: 4 years, (OCGA 11- 22A-506) NOTE: The parties may reduce the period to one year.
Written contract: 6 years from when it becomes due and payable and the six (6) year period runs from the date of last payment. (OCGA 9-3-24)
Open account; implied promise or undertaking: 4 years, (OCGA 9-3-25). NOTE: Payment, unaccompanied by a writing acknowledging the debt, does not stopped the statute. Therefore, the statutory period runs from the date of default, not the date of last payment.
Bonds or other instruments under seal, 20 years, (OCGA 9-3-23) NOTE: No instrument is considered under seal unless it’s stated in the body of the instrument.
Breach of contract for sale under the UCC: 4 years.
Written contract or liability: 5 years.
Contract or liability that is not written: 4 years. NOTE: The time period begins as of the date of the last item, typically a payment or a charge under a credit card agreement. A written acknowledgement or new promise signed by the debtor is sufficient evidence to cause the relevant statute of limitations to begin running anew. Any payment of principal or interest is equivalent to a new promise in writing to pay the residue of the debt.
Judgments: 5 years but may be renewed for another five-year period. NOTE: An independent action on a judgment of any court of the United States must be brought within 6 years.
The time limitation for the commencement of any action is tolled during the time of a person's absence from the state or during the time that an action is stayed by injunction or by statutory prohibition action.
Breach of contract for sale under the UCC: 4 years.
Open account or unwritten contract: 5 years. NOTE: Except, as provided in 810 ILCS 5/2- 725 (UCC), actions based on a written contract must be filed within 10 years, but if a payment or new written promise to pay is in made during the 10 year period, then the action may be commenced within 10 years after the date of the payment or promise to pay.
Domestic judgments: 20 years, but can be renewed during that 20-year period.
Foreign judgments are the same time as allowed by the laws of the foreign jurisdiction.
Tolling: A person's absence from the state or during the time that an action is stayed by injunction, court order or by statutory prohibition tolls the time limit.
Non Sufficient Funds (NSF or Payment of Negotiable Instruments) checks: 3 years of the dishonor of the draft or 10 years after the date of the draft, whichever expired first: 810 ILCS 5/3-118
Generally all civil actions must be commenced within 6 years after the cause of action accrues. (14 M.R.S.A. 752)
The primary exception is for liabilities under seal, promissory notes signed in the presence of an attesting witness, or on the bills, notes or other evidences of debt issued by a bank, in which case, the limitation is twenty (20) years after the cause of action accrues. (14 M.R.S.A. 751)
Judgments are presumed paid after twenty (20) years. (14 M.R.S.A. 864)
Civil action: 3 years from the date it accrues, unless:
Breach of contract under any sale of goods and services under the UCC: 4 years after the cause of action, even if the aggrieved party is unaware of the breach.
Promissory notes or instruments under seal, bonds, judgments, recognizance, contracts under seal, or other specialties: 12 years.
Financing statement: 12 years, unless a continuation statement is filed by a secured party six (6) months prior to end of twelve (12) year period. (Maryland, Commercial Law article Sec. 2-725; Courts & Judicial Proceedings Article Sec. 5-101-02, 9-403).
NOTE: The 3 year statute of limitations begins again if creditors can document that a debtor has reaffirmed a debt by a good faith basis by a written agreement, orally, or by payment.
Breach of contract for sale under the UCC: 4 years, (MSA 336.2.).
NOTE: Except where the Uniform Commercial Code otherwise prescribes, actions based on a contract or other obligation, express or implied, must be brought within 6 years after the cause of action occurred (Chapter 541).
Tolling: New written acknowledgement or payment tolls the statute of limitations for the debt.
Written agreement that contemplates the payment of money or property: 10 Years, (Mo.Rev. Stat. §5l6.ll 0). NOTE: Under certain circumstances, the contractual statute of limitations may be reduced to five years.
Open accounts: 5 years, (Mo. Rev. Stat. §5l6.l20).
Sale of goods under the UCC: 4 years. NOTE: The statute begins to run from the date when the breach occurred for contracts and from the time of the last item in the account on the debtor's side for actions on accounts.
UpMontana Statutes of Limitation (MCA Title 27, Chapter 2)
Written contract, obligation or liability: 8 years.
Contract, account or promise that is not based on a written instrument: 5 years.
Montana obligation on to provide a certain level of support for a spouse, child or indigent parent: 2 years.
Obligation or liability, other than a contract, account or promise not based on a written instrument: 3 years.
Relief on the grounds of fraud or mistake: 2 years.
NOTE: A written acknowledgement signed by the debtor or any payment on a debt is sufficient evidence to cause the relevant statute of limitations to begin running anew.
Judgment or decree of any U.S. court: 10 years. NOTE: Judgments rendered in a court not of record: 6 years.
Real estate or foreclosure mortgage actions; product liability; 10 years.
Foreign judgments, contract or promise in writing, express or implied: 5 Years.
Unwritten contract, express or implied; Recovery of personal property; Relief on grounds of fraud; breach of contract for sale of goods; and open account: 4 years.
Liability created by federal statute with no other limitation: 3 years. Malpractice: 2 Years.
NOTE: SoL can be interrupted by partial payment or written acknowledgement of debt. The statute starts to run anew from the date of the partial payment or written acknowledgement, (Neb. Rev. Stat. §25-216)
NOTE: Actions on breach of contract for sale may be reduced to not less than one year.
Conversion of an instrument for money: 3 years, (N.J.S.A.12A: 3-118(g)).
Sale of goods under the UCC: 4-years, (N.J.S.A. 12A; 2-725).
Real or personal property damage, recovery and contracts not under seal: 6 years (N.J.S.A. 2A: 14-1).
Demand Notes when no demand is made: 10 years. If demand made: 6 years from date of demand, (12A: 3-118(b)).
Obligations under seal for the payment of money only, except bank, merchant, finance company or other financial institution: 16 years, (N.J.S.A. 2A: 14-4) actions for unpaid rent if lease agreement is under seal, (N.J.S.A. 2A: 14-4).
Real estate: 20 years, (N.J.S.A. 2A: 14-7); Judgments: 20 years, renewable, (2A: 14-5); Foreign judgments: 20 years (unless period in originating jurisdiction is less), (2A: 14- 5).
Unaccepted drafts: 3 years from date of dishonor or 10 years from date of draft, whichever expires first, (12A: 3- 118(c)).
N. Y. Civil Practice Law and Rules: Chapter Eight of the Consolidated Laws, Article 2 - Limitations of Time:
211. Actions to be commenced within twenty years. (a) On a bond. (b) On a money judgment. (c) By state for real property. (d) By grantee of state for real property. (e) For support, alimony or maintenance.
212. Actions to be commenced within ten years. (a) Possession necessary to recover real property. (b) Annulment of letters patent. (c) To redeem from a mortgage.
213. Actions to be commenced within six years: where not otherwise provided for; on contract; on sealed instrument; on bond or note, and mortgage upon real property; by state based on misappropriation of public property; based on mistake; by corporation against director, officer or stockholder; based on fraud.
213-a. Actions to be commenced within four years; residential rent overcharge.
213-b. Action by a victim of a criminal offense.
214. Actions to be commenced within three years: for non- payment of money collected on execution; for penalty created by statute; to recover chattel; for injury to property; for personal injury; for malpractice other than medical or dental malpractice; to annul a marriage on the ground of fraud.
UCC, Section 2--725. Statute of Limitations in Contracts for Sale. (1) An action for breach of any contract for sale must be commenced within four years after the cause of action has accrued. By the original agreement the parties may reduce the period of limitation to not less than one year but may not extend it. (2) A cause of action accrues when the breach occurs, regardless of the aggrieved party`s lack of knowledge of the breach. Contract for lease of goods: 4 years (N. Y. U.C.C. 2-A-506(1).
S 203. Method of computing periods of limitation generally. (a) Accrual of cause of action and interposition of claim. The time within which an action must be commenced, except as otherwise expressly prescribed, shall be computed from the time the cause of action accrued to the time the claim is interposed.
Express or implied contract, not under seal: 3 years.
Contract and sale of personal property under seal: 10 years.
Open account: 3 years, NOTE: Each payment renews the SoL on all items purchased within the 3 years prior that payment. If no payment is made, the SoL runs from date of each individual charge. Contracts: From date of breach or default, unless waived or performance under the contract is continued.
Judgments: 10 years
Partial payment BEFORE the SoL expires renews the SoL from date of payment.
Payment AFTER SoL expires renews SoL ONLY if, at time of payment, circumstances infer the debtor recognized obligation to pay. Partial payment on open account restarts SoL on purchases made within 3 years of payment date, if acknowledgment can be inferred, starts the statute anew as to the full obligation acknowledged, even if all of the charges were not made within the last three years.NC Continued...
Partial payment by one debtor does not renew the statute of limitations as against any a co-debtor unless that co-debtor agreed to, authorized or ratified the partial payment.
Partial payments DO NOT affect the ten-year limitation on enforcing or renewing judgments.
Bankruptcy, Death or Disability: Filing of a bankruptcy tolls the statute of limitations for the enforcement of contracts and judgments.
The death, minority, disability or incompetence of a debtor also tolls the limitation period until such time as a personal representative of the estate or a guardian of the incompetent or minor is appointed.
Unwritten and implied contracts: 5 years, (W. Va. Code 55-2-6 (1923)).
NOTE: If a debtor makes an acknowledgment by a new promise, or voluntarily makes a partial payment on a debt, under circumstances that warrant a clear inference that the debtor recognizes the whole debt, the statute of limitations is revived and begins to run from the date of the new promise, (W. Va. Code §55 -2-8 )
Breach of a sale of goods, lease of goods, negotiable instruments and secured transactions under the UCC, is found Article 46 of the West Virginia Code.
Any contract, agreement or promise in writing: 10 years, (WS 1-3-105(a)(i)).
Unwritten contract, express or implied: 8 years, (WS 1-3-105(a)(ii)).
Recovery of personal property: 4 years, (WS 1-3-1 05 (a) (iv)).
Dishonor of draft (check): 3 years, (WS 34.1-3-118( c)).
Judgment: 21 years.
NOTE 1: Judgments cannot be revived after twenty-one years unless the party entitled to bring the action was a minor or subject to any other legal disability at the time the judgment became dormant, in this case action may be brought within 15 years after disability ceases, (WS 1-16-503).
NOTE 2: If no execution is issued within 5 years from date of judgment or last execution is issued, the judgment becomes dormant and ceases to operate as a lien on the estate of the debtor, (WS 1-17-307).
NOTE 3: A dormant judgment may be revived in the same manner as prescribed for reviving actions before judgment or by action, (WS 1-16-502).
Since most debt actions are based in contract: 6 years from the date the cause of action arose (date of last payment or written acknowledgment of the debt).
NOTE: If the contract provides that the law of another jurisdiction governs it, the limitation period of that jurisdiction will apply.
The post-judgment enforcement remedy of filing a writ of seizure and sale provides that the writ is valid for 6 years from the date it is issued, subject to renewal, which is the responsibility of the creditor. A discretionary procedure exists to renew an expired writ.
Actions on foreign judgments, including those from the United States, must be commenced within 20 years from the date of the foreign judgment. The merits of the defenses, if any, which were raised in the foreign debt action, are generally not available as defenses to the action on the judgment.